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Research Methodology Methods And Techniques



Methodology in research is defined as the systematic method to resolve a research problem through data gathering using various techniques, providing an interpretation of data gathered and drawing conclusions about the research data. Essentially, a research methodology is the blueprint of a research or study (Murthy & Bhojanna, 2009, p. 32). As such, the methodology in research proposal is of utmost importance.




Research Methodology Methods and Techniques


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Now that you know what is methodology in research, the next step is to identify the different methods used in research. Traditionally, researchers often approach research studies using the methodology research institutions typically use which are two distinct paradigms, namely positivistic and phenomenological (Collis & Hussey, 2013). Also sometimes called qualitative and quantitative (Dumay, 2008), positivistic and phenomenological approaches play a significant role in determining your data gathering process, especially the methods you are going to use in your research.


This approach is often used by researchers who follow the scientific paradigm (Haq, 2014, p. 1). This method seeks to quantify data and generalize results from a sample of a target population (Macdonald et al., 2008, p. 9). It follows structured data collection methods and processes with data output in the form of numbers. Quantitative research also observes objective analysis using statistical means (Macdonald et al., 2008, p. 9).


A contemporary method sprung from the combination of traditional quantitative and qualitative approaches. According to Brannen and Moss (2012), the existence of the mixed methods approach stemmed from its potential to help researchers view social relations and their intricacies clearer by fusing together the quantitative and qualitative methods of research while recognizing the limitations of both at the same time.


Mixed methods are also known for the concept of triangulation in social research. According to Haq (2014, p. 11), triangulation provides researchers with the opportunity to present multiple findings about a single phenomenon by deploying various elements of quantitative and qualitative approaches in one research. This is the kind of method that one may use when studying sleep and academic performance.


Saunders et al. (2007) proposed the concept of the research onion model to help researchers develop a methodology and construct research design techniques within the field of future studies. This research onion model has six main layers, which serve as a step-by-step guide for researchers on how to write a research methodology.


The methodology section of your research paper is not all about describing your data gathering process and your analysis. The methodology is about the overall approaches and perspectives of the research process. If you want to study abroad for free and have to present a research proposal to the institution for acceptance, then you have to be able to clearly delineate your analytical methods for your study. Here are some tips as well as problems to avoid in order to write an effective research methodology. Out of these, you can construct your own research methodology example for future reference. While doing so, you can apply research methodology best practices for optimal results.


Even in writing a methodology, researchers must adhere to ethical norms to ensure trust, accountability, mutual respect, and fairness (Resnik, 2015). According to Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill (2003, p. 131), there are some ethical considerations that researchers must be mindful of, especially during the process of gathering and presenting research data:


A research methodology definition is: specific techniques for collecting and analyzing data in order to uncover new information. Research methodology provides a strategy by which the researcher can plot out a systemic process to understand a phenomenon. When trying to understand a problem or phenomenon, different methods need to be used depending on the data available as well as how relevant available data may be. If there is limited data about a topic, a researcher may need to use different research methods to ensure rigor.


There are two general research methodology approaches when collecting and analyzing data; these approaches are quantitative and qualitative. Selecting a research method depends on the type of data the researcher needs. There are two different kinds of data, quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative data is numerical, which requires statistical analysis methods to interpret the data. Statistical analysis methods include finding the mean, median, standard deviation, variance, etc. and using software such as SPSS or R can make getting this information easier. Qualitative data is narrative or visual, which requires thematic analysis to interpret the data. Thematic analysis uses words and sentences to code and gather into categories. While the data is coded, interrelationships among emergent themes can be recognized. Thematic analysis can be done easily by utilizing a software such as Atlas.ti or NVivo.


Mixed methods research combines quantitative and qualitative approaches by including both kinds of data in a single study. Mixed methods research allows the researcher to build on the relationship and strength that exists between quantitative and qualitative research approaches. This allows for the phenomenon that is being researched to be better understood.


When conducting quantitative research, surveys can be conducted. Survey research is a quantitative research methodology technique that involves collecting numerical data to test hypotheses or answer questions about the status of the subject in the study.


Qualitative research method techniques include participant observation, interviews, and focus groups. Participant observation is used for collecting data on naturally occurring behaviors in their natural settings. Interviews are best for collecting data on an individual's history, perspective, or experience. Focus groups are very effective in collecting data on norms of a group or issues faced by a group.


A research methodology example utilizing quantitative research could involve survey research. A survey could collect data by asking participants of a specific population a set of questions. The questionnaire could be developed by the researcher. The researcher would need to identify specific objectives concerning the kind of information needed and then formulate questions that directly relate to the objectives. Each question needs to be worded as clearly as possible, and include directions for participants to help standardize the administration of the questionnaire. The questionnaires could be distributed by mail or email with a specific deadline date. The simplest questionnaire to tabulate would be one in which participants mark responses to close-ended questions on a scannable answer sheet. This will save time for the researcher. For example, a researcher may want to find out the prevalence of smoking in a specific community. A survey can be created and dispersed to the adequate population. Upon receiving responses, the researcher can gain valuable quantitative insight.


A research method example utilizing mixed methodology would combine both the quantitative and qualitative research. The researcher could send out a survey to the demographic of choice asking about their smoking habits. Upon viewing the results, the researcher could then go into the community and make observations to create research questions. This process would integrate both quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques.


Research methodology refers to the techniques or procedures used for collecting and analyzing data in order to uncover new information. Research methods can be quantitative, qualitative, or a combination of both, known as mixed methodology. Quantitative research is the collection and analysis of numerical data to describe, explain, predict, or control phenomena of interest. Quantitative research methods seek to measure variables in order to test hypotheses or answer research questions. A quantitative research technique includes survey research. Qualitative research is the collection, analysis, and interpretation of comprehensive narrative and visual data to gain insights into a particular phenomenon of interest. Qualitative research methods do not have any manipulation of variables. A qualitative research technique includes participant observation (the most widely used strategy) and interviews, the latter of which can include open-ended or closed-ended questions. Mixed methodology research combines quantitative and qualitative approaches by including both kinds of data in a single study.


Depending on the research method of choice, the researcher can use a quantitative approach, a qualitative approach, or a mixed methods approach. In order to write a research methodology quantitatively, the researcher needs to collect and analyze numerical data via a quantitative technique, such as a survey. In order to write a research methodology qualitatively, the researcher needs to make observations, formulate research questions, and conduct interviews. Remember to note the type of research that a researcher is going to be using. If the researcher conducts primary research, they are going to be directly involved in the data-gathering process. If the researcher is only using existing research materials, they are conducting secondary research.


Depending on the research methodology of choice, the researcher can use a quantitative approach, a qualitative approach, or a mixed methodology approach. In order to write a research methodology quantitatively, the researcher needs to collect and analyze numerical data via a quantitative technique, such as a survey. In order to write a research methodology qualitatively, the researcher needs to make observations, formulate research questions, and conduct interviews. 041b061a72


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